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What is the main environment for face masks

By admin on May 07, 2020

What is the main environment for  face masks

Respirator is a kind of sanitary products, generally refers to the mouth and nose is used to filter the air entering the nose and mouth, in order to achieve the role of blocking harmful gases, odors, droplets, viruses and other substances, made of gauze or paper.
Masks have a certain filtering effect on the air entering the lungs. When respiratory infectious diseases are prevalent and when working in a polluted environment such as dust, wearing a mask has a very good effect.
Masks can be divided into air filter masks and air supply masks

face masks

Specifications

Planar masks are divided into: cotton masks, non-woven fabric masks, polymer material masks, activated carbon powder filter masks, activated carbon fiber felt pad masks.
Size specification: 18 × 9 (adult), 15 × 9 (child).

Medical masks

Masks are divided into medical masks and non-medical masks, (and the latest) civil sanitary masks.
At present, China’s mask standards mainly regulate civil protection and medical protection. Standards for civil protective masks GB / T 32610-2016 “Technical Specifications for Daily Protective Masks”, GB 2626-2006 “Respiratory Protective Products Self-Suction Filter Anti-Particle Respirator” are mainly applicable to the protection of particles It plays an important role in the process, but the barrier masks (mainly flat masks) that are widely used in the resumption of production cannot meet the requirements of the above two standards. The medical standards GB 19083-2010 “Technical Requirements for Medical Protective Masks”, YY 0469-2011 “Medical Surgical Masks”, YY / T 0969-2013 “Disposable Medical Masks” are mainly applicable to medical institutions. However, there are no suitable standards for hygienic (barrier type) masks used by ordinary people according to the mask usage scenarios and the crowd. In order to better meet the urgent needs of the public for hygienic masks during the epidemic situation, it is convenient for enterprises that produce / convert masks to adopt and apply standards, and at the same time ensure product quality and facilitate market supervision. The market conducted an argumentation study and urgently submitted an application for the establishment of the “Civil Sanitary Mask” group standard to the Standardization Technical Committee of the China National Textile and Apparel Council (China Textile Federation). On March 11, the Chinese Communist Party Association officially released the T / CNITA 09104-2020 “civil sanitary mask” standard

Mask item classification

N series: no time limit for protection of non-oily suspended particles
R series: protection of non-oily suspended particles and sweaty oily suspended particles for a period of eight hours
P series: no time limit for protection of non-oily suspended particles and sweaty oily suspended particles

When the carrier of some particulates is oily, and these substances are attached to the electrostatic non-woven fabric, the electrical properties will be reduced, and the fine dust will penetrate. Therefore, the filter material for preventing the oil-containing sol must undergo special electrostatic treatment to achieve the small The purpose of dust. So each series is divided into 3 levels: 95%, 99%, 99.97% (that is, referred to as 95, 99, 100), so there are 9 small categories of filter materials.

2. European Union EN149 Standard:

FFP1 category mask: minimum filtering effect “80%
FFP2 mask: minimum filtering effect> 94%
FFP3 category mask: minimum filtering effect “97%

3. Australian AS1716 standard

P1: Minimum filtering effect “80%
P2: Minimum filtering effect “94%

4. Japanese MOL verification standards:

Test environmental conditions
Experimental particles
DOP 
NaCl 
Particle size distribution μm
0.15-0.25
0.06-0.1
[mg/m3]
≤100
≤50
[L/min]
85
85
Test time
 200mg
 00mg

Replacement dust mask standard

distinguish
[more than%]
[Pa below]
[Pa]
DOP
NaCl
RL3
RS3
99.9
160
80
RL2
RS2
95.0
80
70
RL1
RS1
80
70
70
Disposable mask standard
distinguish
[more than%]
[Pa below]
[Pa below]
DOP
NaCl
With air valve
Airless valve
With air valve
Airless valve
DL3
DS3
99.9
150
100
80
100
DL2
DS2
95
70
50
70
50
DL1
DS1
80
60
45
60
45

5. Chinese National Standard GB6223-86UDC614.894:

Except for the Japanese standard (0.06-0.1 microns), the above inspection standards are tested with a particle size of 0.3 microns.
The EU standard test flow rate is 95L / min, and the US standard is 85L / min. China’s national standard uses a suspended particle size of more than 90% of less than 5 microns, more than 70% of less than 2 microns, and a flow rate of 42.5L / min. In the testing and certification of filter media, the “worst case” idea is adopted, that is, the conditions when the laboratory performs the testing experiment are set to the worst conditions. For example, when the efficiency experiment is used, the particle size of the aerosol sodium salt or DOP oil mist is 0.3 microns, and it represents the diameter of the aerodynamic calculation. It represents the size of the very small and most easily penetrated filter material. The breathing volume during strong physical labor, the filter material is also pre-treated at high temperature and high humidity before the experiment, which represents a harsh working environment. The purpose of all these is to test under such harsh conditions, if the filter material can pass the test Reaching the corresponding efficiency level, then in practical applications, it will be able to protect the health of workers more effectively. Anti-toxic filter materials generally use activated carbon or chemically-treated activated carbon as a material, and filter poisonous gas or poisonous vapor by adsorption or chemical reaction without being inhaled by people. There are many micropores in the internal structure of activated carbon that can constitute a very large specific surface area. These micropores can inhale toxic vapors and toxic gas molecules with different molecular sizes into them without escaping. The treatment and installation requirements of activated carbon are very high. If the improper treatment or the activated carbon particles are very thick and cause gaps between the particles, the poison gas will penetrate into the respiratory tract from the gaps and will not be adsorbed. Therefore, it is very unscientific to replace the activated carbon in bags. The activated carbon in a good chemical filter box should be packed densely, with a small particle size and a large specific surface area, so that the anti-virus time will be long. At the same time, it must also consider the small breathing resistance and comfortable wearing.

Air-supply mask
It refers to the clean air source isolated from harmful substances, which is sent to the person’s face through a tube and a face mask for breathing through dynamic actions such as an air compressor and a compressed gas cylinder device.
Air filter mask
Air filter masks are the most widely used in daily work. The structure of an air filter mask should be divided into two parts, one is the main body of the mask, which can be simply understood as a mask frame; the other is the filter material part, including dustproof filter cotton and antivirus Chemical filter box, etc.

Tightness

The anti-leakage design of the mask is to prevent air from being sucked through the gap between the mask and the human face without filtering through the consideration of technical requirements. Air is like water flow, wherever resistance is small, it flows first. When the shape of the mask is not close to the face, the dangerous objects in the air will leak into the airway from the non-closed place. So, even if you choose a mask with the best filter material. Nor can it protect your health. Many foreign regulations and standards stipulate that workers should conduct regular mask adhesion tests. The purpose is to ensure that workers choose a mask of the appropriate size and wear the mask in the correct steps.
Comfortable to wear
In this way, workers will be happy to insist on wearing in the workplace and improve their work efficiency. Current maintenance-free masks abroad do not require cleaning or replacement of parts. When the dust barrier is saturated or the mask is damaged, it is discarded. This not only ensures the hygiene of the mask but also saves the time and effort of the workers to maintain the mask. Moreover, many masks adopt an arched shape, which can not only ensure a good adhesion with the shape of the face, but also reserve a certain space at the mouth and nose, which is comfortable to wear.
Uncomfortable people
People with heart or respiratory problems (such as asthma and emphysema), pregnancy, dizziness after wearing, difficulty breathing, and sensitive skin.

Change the mask

1. The mask is contaminated with foreign objects such as blood stains or droplets.
2. The user feels that the breathing resistance becomes greater.
3. The mask is damaged.
4. Dust-proof filter cotton, when the mask is close to the user’s face, when the user feels a lot of breathing resistance, it means that the filter cotton is full of dust particles, and a new mask should be replaced.
5. Anti-virus filter box, when the mask is in close contact with the user’s door, when the user smells the poison, it should be replaced with a new one.
6. Ordinary mask wear: activated carbon masks can generally be used for 2 days, n95 can be used for a week. If the mask has not been worn for a long time after cleaning, it is better to wear it again.

Materials

2-layer mask: non-woven fabric, nose bridge, ear hook.
3-layer mask: non-woven fabric, nose bridge, earhook, filter paper.
Activated carbon masks: non-woven fabric, nose bridge, ear hooks, filter paper, activated carbon filter paper.

Duration of use

From the point of view of human physiology, blood circulation in the nasal mucosa is very strong, and the channels in the nasal cavity are very tortuous. The nose hairs constitute a filtering “barrier”. When air is sucked into the nostrils, the airflow forms a vortex in the tortuous channel, which heats the airflow sucked into the nasal cavity. Some tests have shown that when cold air at minus 7 ° C is drawn into the lungs through the nasal cavity, the airflow has been heated to 28.8 ° C, which is very close to the temperature of the human body. If you wear a mask for a long time, the nasal mucosa will become fragile and lose the original physiological function of the nasal cavity, so you cannot wear a mask for a long time. Masks can only be worn in special environments, such as places with many people and no air circulation. Of course, walking in the wild, in order to resist wind and sand and cold, or activities in an environment with air pollution, you need to wear a mask, but the time should not be too long. In addition, in the flu season, go to public places where there may be a large number of pathogens, you should also wear a mask. Wearing a mask is only one of the ways to prevent respiratory infectious diseases. The most important thing is to maintain good living habits.
Cleaning and maintenance
The outer layer of the mask often accumulates a lot of dust, bacteria and other dirt in the outside air, and the inner layer blocks the exhaled bacteria and saliva. Therefore, the two sides cannot be used interchangeably, otherwise the dirt contaminated by the outer layer will be directly attached When inhaled into the face, it becomes a source of infection. When the mask is not worn, it should be folded and placed in a clean envelope, and the side close to the nose and nose should be folded inwards, and it should never be stuffed into the pocket or hung around the neck.
Daily use of masks must be properly handled
Daily use of masks must be properly handled
If the mask is wetted by exhaled heat or saliva, its effect of blocking germs will be greatly reduced. Therefore, it is best to prepare a few more masks for replacement. You should change and wash it once a day. When washing, it should be scalded with boiling water for 5 minutes.
Masks should be cleaned and disinfected every day. Both gauze masks and air filter masks can be disinfected by heating. The specific approach is:
1. Cleaning. First, gently rub the gauze mask with warm water and soap. The bowl-shaped mask can be gently brushed with a soft brush dipped in detergent, and then washed with water. Please be careful not to rub hard, because if the gap between the warp and weft of the gauze is too large, it will lose the effect of preventing droplets.
2. Disinfect. Put the cleaned mask in a 2% peracetic acid solution for 30 minutes or boil in boiling water for 20 minutes or steam in a steamer for 15 minutes, and then dry it for use. This method is suitable for gauze masks and bowl masks.
3. Check. Before using it again, you should carefully check whether the mask and mask are still intact. For gauze masks and masks, you can take a light transmission inspection method, that is, take a look in front of the lamp to see if there are obvious light spots. Is the rate consistent? If in doubt, replace it with a new one. In any case, masks and masks are generally updated after 3 to 7 times of cleaning, and masks of particularly good quality can be cleaned 10 times. Activated carbon adsorption masks should pay attention to regularly replace the activated carbon interlayer. If the activated carbon interlayer is not replaceable, it will be replaced after 7 to 14 days. This mask cannot be cleaned and then reused. [5]
Properly handled
Daily use of masks should be properly handled. Masks used by patients or used during care should be placed in a lined container in the patient room before processing

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